POLITICAL SITUATION,— In 1792, Italy was divided into the kingdom of Sardinia with its provinces of Savoy, Nice, Pied- mont and Sardinia; the republics of Genoa and Venice; the duchies of Parma, Modena and Tuscany; the Austrian province of Milan; the Papal states; and the kingdom of Naples. In 1796, Austria, Sardinia and Naples were at war with France. The dukes of Parma and Modena were under the influence of Austria. Because of the violence of the French Revolution, the rulers of the other states, although not actively hostile to France,* were not friendly. In all these states there was a middle class of active French sympathizers.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.