POLITICAL SITUATION,— In 1792, Italy was divided into 
the kingdom of Sardinia with its provinces of Savoy, Nice, Pied- 
mont and Sardinia; the republics of Genoa and Venice; the duchies 
of Parma, Modena and Tuscany; the Austrian province of Milan; 
the Papal states; and the kingdom of Naples. 

In 1796, Austria, Sardinia and Naples were at war with France. 
The dukes of Parma and Modena were under the influence of 
Austria. Because of the violence of the French Revolution, the 
rulers of the other states, although not actively hostile to France,* 
were not friendly. In all these states there was a middle class of 
active French sympathizers.
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